Tĩnh năng lượng điện là gì

Tĩnh điện là hiện tượng kỳ lạ mất cân đối điện tích bên trên bề mặt của một vật tư. Điện tích sẽ tiến hành giữ lại ở kia cho tới Lúc nó có thể tương truyền địa điểm khác thông sang 1 dòng điện hoặc sự phóng điện.quý khách đang xem: Electric charge là gì

Static is generated when two objects made of different electrically neutral materials tương tác and then separate.Quý khách hàng vẫn xem: Electric charge là gì


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1) Contact between objects A & B

Electrically neutral objects A and B (with equal quantities of positive sầu & negative charges)

2) Transfer of charge

When metals contact each other, electrons move from one with a smaller work function khổng lồ one with a larger work function. In other words, metal with a smaller work function will be charged positively and one with a larger work function negatively.Bạn sẽ xem: Electric charge là gì

3) Separation between objects A and B

Object A is charged negatively & object B positively.quý khách hàng đang xem: Electric charge là gì

Figure 1. Static generation due khổng lồ liên hệ charging

Static is generated when two objects tương tác và then separate. The combination of the two objects may be solid và solid, solid and liquid, or liquid & liquid. Figure 2 shows examples.

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Figure 2. Examples of static generation

All the above phenomena involve sầu tương tác between two objects and their separation.


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Figure 3. Examples of charging

Friction between two objects in a triboelectric series causes the object in the upper position of the series khổng lồ be charged positively và that in the lower position lớn be charged negatively. Friction between two objects positioned far apart (C) also generates a larger amount of static than ones closer to lớn each other (B) and much closer lớn each other (A) (A

When an object is charged


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Figure 4. Electrical field generated around charged objects

Starts from a positive electric charge và ends in a negative sầu electric chargeLines do not intersect each otherDoes not branch offThe electrical field is svào when lines of electric force are denseThe electrical field is unisize when lines of electric force are parallelComes out of (enters into) the surface of a conductor vertically


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(a) Lines of electric force between objects with different electrical polarities

(b) Lines of electric force between objects with the same electrical polarity

Figure 5. Lines of electric force formed between two charged objects

E1: Strength of electrical field on a conductor surface

Density of lines of electric force: Low à Electrical field is weak

Charged conductive sphere A

E2: Strength of electrical field on a conductor surface

Density of lines of electric force: High à Electrical field is strong

Charged conductive sầu sphere B

Figure 6. Lines of electric force from two charged conductors with different quantities of electric charge

What is electrostatic force (Coulomb force)?

Electrostatic force (Coulomb force) is the source of an electrostatic phenomenon. As Figure 7 shows, the direction of the force between two charged objects differs according to whether the objects have different electrical polarities or the same electrical polarity. Electrostatic force is an attractive sầu force (a) when the polarities are different & a repulsive force (b) when the two objects have sầu the same electrical polarity.

Xem thêm: Hệ Thống Chỉ Tiêu Là Gì - Nghĩa Của Từ Chỉ Tiêu Kinh Tế Trong Tiếng Việt

(a) Force between objects with different electrical polarities

(b) Force between objects with the same electrical polarity

Figure 7. Electrostatic force between two charged objects

As Formula (1) shows, the strength of the electrostatic force (Coulomb force) is proportional lớn the product of the quantities of the electric charge of the two charged objects and inversely proportional khổng lồ the square of the distance between the two objects.

F ∝Q1・Q2/r2 ・・・・・・・・・・・・(1)

Electrostatic induction is also caused by electrostatic force

Figure 8. Electrostatic induction caused by electrostatic force

Electrostatic discharge is also caused by electrostatic force (Coulomb force)

Figure 9. Generation of electrostatic discharge caused by electrostatic force

The electrical field around the charged object causes the negative sầu ions (electrons) therein to lớn be accelerated by the electrostatic force (Coulomb force), thereby having kinetic energy (wv). When these negative ions strike gas molecules in the electrical field và the following formula is true,

Ionization energy of the gas molecules

electrons are sputtered from the gas molecules, resulting in generation of negative ions and positive sầu ions. The gas molecules are ionized if the negative sầu ions thus generated are subject khổng lồ action of the electrostatic force and the negative sầu ions are accelerated in the electrical field with its kinetic energy meeting the condition expressed in formula (2) above. Repetition of this process results in generation of electrostatic discharge.

Charge distribution of a conductor is also influenced by electrostatic force (Coulomb force)

Figure 10. Distribution of electric charges on a charged conductive sầu sphere

(a) Conductor with surface potential distribution

(b) Electric charges that are distributed in a way that makes the conductor surface equipotential

Figure 11. Electric charges are distributed on a conductor surface in a way that makes the surface equipotential.

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